A star fell. The sudden flash signifies the end of the supernova explosion. However, this is only part of the star’s life cycle, because the rich material produced during the star’s death throes is ejected into space by the supernova.
When the next generation of stars forms, they will remove supernova remnants and accumulate the metal produced by the dying star. Metal is a term used by astronomers to refer to anything heavier than hydrogen and helium. Metals are important; without them, the disks of gas and dust that surround newly formed stars cannot form rocky planets. But if the new star recovers the metal that was produced when the old star died, what did the original star do?
The universe began with the Big Bang, which produced hydrogen and helium, traces of lithium and perhaps beryllium. Matter begins to gather together, drawing more and more matter through gravity. It’s possible that dark matter, a mysterious substance that hasn’t been directly detected, began to accumulate first. This then introduces ordinary substances, substances that we can see, like hydrogen and helium. Common matter and dark matter together create the so-called “mini halo”, although the name is a bit misleading, because the mass of the mini halo is about one million times that of our sun. Chapter
Where did the first star come from? Chapter
Where did the first star come from? (Image source: Tobias Roetsch) 200 million years after the
Big Bang, the first stars were born in mini-halos.
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The first stars are called the three stars, and because they are too dark, they have never been observed. The first stars must be content with what they have available, and were formed from clouds containing only hydrogen and helium. When they died in a supernova explosion, they produced the first group of metals for the subsequent group of stars, the second group, which contained a small proportion of metals. These continued to give birth to the metal-rich constellation I stars we have today. The dark matter in the
halo may not only hold the elements together, it may also exist in the depths of the first stars. These stars are called “dark stars” because they contain dark matter inside, although they actually emit very bright light.
Everything we can see and detect, stars and galaxies, only represents 5% of the universe, while dark matter represents 25%. The rest is made up of dark energy, another strange force believed to accelerate the expansion of the universe. As CERN points out, dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter and does not produce light. We only know that it must exist, because its enormous gravitational pull attracts ordinary matter.
One of the main theories that tries to explain the invisible mass in the universe is a hypothetical particle called WIMP, a massive particle with weak interaction. “Weak” interactions refer to your relationship with ordinary substances. However, they will continue to interact with themselves. In fact, if two WIMPs collide with each other, they will destroy each other in a process called annihilation. This is because theories, like this study from the University of Maryland, predict that WIMPs are their own “antiparticles.”
Dark matter first aggregates into clusters and filaments, and then attracts ordinary matter, and then forms the first batch of stars
Dark matter first aggregates into clusters and filaments, and then attracts ordinary matter to it, and then forms the first batch of stars (picture Source: Tom Abel and Ralf Kaehler (KIPAC, SLAC), AMNH)
Ordinary matter has antiparticles, which are particles with the same properties but opposite charges. An atom consists of an atomic nucleus surrounded by electrons. Electrons are negatively charged, and if they encounter particles called positrons, which are positively charged, the electrons and positrons will annihilate each other catastrophically. One side effect of
Annihilation is that it generates energy. As stars begin to form mini-halos, the collapsed material will contain hydrogen, helium, and WIMP. At first, the energy generated by WIMP collisions would leak into space, but when the density of hydrogen is high enough, it traps the energy of WIMP inside the star. Although WIMPs only account for a small part of the mass of stars, they are very efficient in generating energy and can provide dark stars with energy for millions or even billions of years. Whether the early stars of
were ordinary stellar group III stars and dark stars without dark matter, or whether the two kinds of stars coexist, it is still uncertain. “The standard scenarios for the first star formation did not depend on the annihilation of dark matter,” said Erik Zackrisson of Uppsala University in Sweden. “Dark stars are only regarded as strange alternatives to standard formation routes.”
Ordinary stars work through fusion, a process that converts the hydrogen in the star’s core into helium. The stars of Star Group III should be very large, about 100 times heavier

By Peter

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